The history of denim jeans started in 19th century at America. The Levi Strauss and Jacob Devis were the main key persons and founder of denim jeans pant. The Levi Strauss came from Germany to US in 1853 where he joined his brother’s dry goods business. He was dealing in different items in which cotton fabric was also included. Whereas, the Jacob W. Davis (a tailor of different items like tents, horse blankets, and wagon covers) was one of his customer of cotton fabric. One day, Jacob Devis customer ordered him a stardy pant that could bear hard work. So, he bought denim-jeans fabric from Levi Strauss and made stardy pant with copper-rivets at different parts (like pockets,fly etc).
After that Jacob Devis contacted Levi Strauss to develop a better product in denim jeans fabric. So, this is how the first jeans pant was invented in 1873 with the joint efforts of Jacob Devis and Levi Strauss. And after that their jeans factory introduced and changed the main concept of jeans pant. And it’s the tireless efforts of both experts which introduced the denim jeans from workwear to fashion wear.
History of Denim Jeans:
As we all know that the jeans are made from denim. The word denim is derived from sturdy fabric called “Serge de Nîmes” in French language. The weavers of Nîmes in Italy were trying to reproduce the cotton corduroy fabric but due to some error they developed a sturdy twill fabric known as denim. And this twill fabric’s weft passes through two or three warp threads. Initially, the warp thread was indigo blue dyed whereas the weft threads remained in white color. So, the facing part of the fabric was blue whereas the reverse side of the denim fabric was in white color.
Denim Jeans Garment Making Process:
Let’s have a look on below steps through which we can have a standard denim jeans pant.
Spinning & Weaving:
The cotton denim jeans fabric is developed by cotton thread which is made from cotton crop. The field workers picked the crop from fields and send it to spinning mills for yarn development. The spinning mills follow the sequence of processes that convert raw cotton fibres into yarn. And by following these numbers of spinning processes, they get clean, strong, uniform yarns required for weaving process. After going through rope dyeing and sizing process, the yarn sized beams are ready for weaving. This yarn is used both in warp and weft thread of the denim to develop a stable and long lasting fabric. After weaving process, the fabric is moved to finishing department for final finish/look.
At cutting, first of all, the required garment (top/bottom) patterns are made before cutting start. And these patterns are drawn on cutting layers on denim fabric. Cutting layers length and thickness (05/200 layers per cutting table) are decided according to the requirement of order. Once the layers are done, the plotter machine drawn the paper pattern which is laid on the denim layers for cutting. The sharp cutters are used to cut these layers according to the drawings.
The cut parts of denim fabrics layers are then move to stitching department for stitching purposes. In some garments, the embroidery or printing is required. So, these parts normally move to embroidery or printing department before stitching process. The stitching of normal pant is done by polyester/cotton thread (top thread: 30-40 count, inner thread: 50-100 count). And normally the stitching process is done in chain production system (garment stitching operations divided into number of operators). Once, the stitching is done then raw top/bottom moved to washing process.
The washing process is divided into two steps, one is dry process and the second is wet process. In dry process, all the before wash effects like distressing, sand blasting, tie & dye effects etc are done. After completing the dry process the garment steps into enzyme/stone and other wet washing process. If the wrinkles are required on garment then the garment wrinkles are cure into oven after washing process.
After washing, the garments are landed on finishing department. Here, all pre-finishing (cropping, buttoning etc.) and finishing (pressing, quality & packing) processes are done. Once quality is done then garments are packed into cartons according to the required client’s ratio for final dispatch.
In the Nutshell:
The above fabric and garments making process is a conventional process. Although there are so many enhancements in the above process but the basics would remain same. If someone wants to closely know the denim jeans making process then he/she must go through the above steps. After knowing the conventional method, he/she should review the rest steps which are mostly related towards environment sustainability. As it’s really necessary to know these technologies too because the above process is not eco-friendly. And we are wasting and polluting our water and environment with chemicals and wasted clothes.